The English poet wrote "" to Americans, calling on them to take up their share of the burden. Subtitled "The United States and the Philippine Islands", it was a widely noted expression of imperialist sentiments, which were common at the time. The nascent desirous of independence, however, resisted the United States in the in 1899; it won no support from any government anywhere and collapsed when its leader was captured. denounced the war and any form of overseas expansion, writing, 'Destiny' is not as manifest as it was a few weeks ago."
Manifest destiny had serious consequences for , since continental expansion implicitly meant the occupation and annexation of Native American land, sometimes to expand slavery. This ultimately led to confrontations and wars with several groups of native peoples via . The United States continued the European practice of recognizing only limited land rights of . In a policy formulated largely by , in the Washington Administration, the U.S. government sought to expand into the west through the purchase of Native American land in treaties. Only the Federal Government could purchase Indian lands and this was done through treaties with tribal leaders. Whether a tribe actually had a decision-making structure capable of making a treaty was a controversial issue. The national policy was for the Indians to join American society and become "civilized", which meant no more wars with neighboring tribes or raids on white settlers or travelers, and a shift from hunting to farming and ranching. Advocates of civilization programs believed that the process of settling native tribes would greatly reduce the amount of land needed by the Native Americans, making more land available for homesteading by white Americans. believed that while American Indians were the intellectual equals of whites, they had to live like the whites or inevitably be pushed aside by them. Jefferson's belief, rooted in thinking, that whites and Native Americans would merge to create a single nation did not last his lifetime, and he began to believe that the natives should emigrate across the and maintain a separate society, an idea made possible by the of 1803.
After the Mexican–American War ended in 1848, disagreements over the expansion of slavery made further annexation by conquest too divisive to be official government policy. Some, such as , governor of Mississippi, offered what public support they could offer. In one memorable case, Quitman simply explained that the state of Mississippi had "lost" its state arsenal, which began showing up in the hands of filibusters. Yet these isolated cases only solidified opposition in the North as many Northerners were increasingly opposed to what they believed to be efforts by Southern slave owners—and their friends in the North—to expand slavery through . on January 24, 1859, delivered an impassioned speech at , that the connection between filibustering and slave power was clear proof of "the mass of corruption that underlay the whole system of American government". The and the continued "" narratives thereafter, indicated the degree to which manifest destiny had become part of the sectional controversy.
Numerous factors contributed to the rise of the United States as a world power. Debates over the United States’ role in world affairs increased in response to overseas expansion and involvement in World War I. United States participation in the war had important effects on American society.
Free Imperialism American papers, essays, and research papers.
Thus, by the 1890s, there had been much experience in overseas probes and interventions. The ideology of expansion was widespread in the upper circles of military men, politicians, businessmen -- and even among some of the leaders of farmers' movements who thought foreign markets would help them.
September 2004 Were American Indians the Victims of Genocide
The most major factor of American expansion was profiteering. The year of the massacre at Wounded Knee in 1890, it was officially declared by the Bureau of the Census that the internal frontier was closed. The severe depression that began in 1893 strengthened the idea within the political and financial elite of the country that overseas markets for American goods might relieve the problem of underconsumption at home. Ninety percent of American products were sold at home; the 10 percent sold abroad amounted to a billion dollars. In his book “The New Empire”, Walter Lafever writes “By 1893, American trade exceeded that of every country in the world except England. Farm products, of course, especially in the key tobacco, cotton, and wheat areas, had long depended heavily on international markets for their prosperity.
Anti-imperialism vs. Imperialism American imperialism, beginning prominently in the 1890s, had a number of motives. The dominant directive motive was the demand for markets for profitable investment. There was also the element of inevitable expansion, the "frontier mentality" and the need to secure world standing in order to remain competitive. Finally, there was a religious motivation, the providential charge to bring Christian civilization to foreign cultures. Simultaneously, anti-imperialists argued on behalf of a variety of objections to the pursuit of colonialism categorized into broad categories as constitutional, economic, diplomatic, moral, racial, political, and historical. Quintessentially, the most influential arguments were the economic argument for imperialism and the moral argument for anti-imperialism. One argument was imperialism. Albert Beveridge of Indiana was a leading advocate of American imperialism. In his 1898 March of the Flag speech he presents a case for overseas expansion. Americans were producing more than they could use and foreign markets would increase national prosperity. Acting on Alfred Thayer Mahan's book, The Influence of Sea Power upon History, American imperialists felt the need to protect expanding mercantile trade through a strong two-ocean navy, coaling stations in the Caribbean and the Pacific, and a canal.
Historians/History tags: American Indians by Guenter Lewy
The year of the massacre at Wounded Knee, 1890, it was officially declared by the Bureau of the Census that the internal frontier was closed. The profit system, with its natural tendency for expansion, had already begun to look overseas. The severe depression that began in 1893 strengthened an idea developing within the political and financial elite of the country: that overseas markets for American goods might relieve the problem of underconsumption at home and prevent the economic crises that in the 1890s brought class war.
Factories and farms produced more than the public could buy, leading to surpluses that resulted in financial panics in 1873 and 1893. It was obvious to the American government that new markets were needed for American goods. Thus American foreign policy makers began to look to foreign countries to provide these markets and were influenced by the work of British writer Captain Alfred Thayer Mahan. Mahan's book “The Influence of Sea Power Upon History” postulated that Britain’s rise to world power began with control of the seas. The United States government was also impressed by the work of Professor Frederick Jackson Turner, whose 1893 essay “The Significance of the American Frontier” argued forcibly that, with westward expansion now over, the United States government must build a merchant navy and a strong fleet to protect overseas interests.The missionary movement actually evolved through internal expansion before venturing overseas. The challenge of providing churches and ministers to growing towns in territories and states as settlers moved west was itself a daunting one. Methodists proved especially effective in missionizing and creating new congregations through their circuits and adaptable structures, but Baptists and Presbyterians also expanded westward. And the Mormons, an offshoot of Protestantism, provided a dramatic example of a uniquely American movement which combined sectarian religious zeal and a genius for settlement of a homeland in the American West. All in all this was a remarkable feat of internal religious expansion. Only in the far west, in the somewhat untypical conditions of California, was there distinctly less success in easterners' transplanting of Protestantism. In addition to the western frontier, later in the century home missions turned to America's growing cities as arenas of missionary effort, where the aim was to convert presumably benighted Roman Catholic and later Jewish immigrants to Protestantism.