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University of California--San Diego is a public institution that was founded in 1960

in California are common occurrences since the state is traversed by six major systems with hundreds of related faults, many of which are "sister faults" of the infamous that runs nearly the full length of California at the juncture of the and the . The fault systems include the , , , and the . Significant blind (faults with near vertical motion and no surface ruptures) are associated with portions of the and the northern reaches of the and . The gives a rough estimate of where the main earthquake zones in California are. Earthquake damage depends on what area is hit, how close to the surface the center of the earthquake is located, and its magnitude. Earthquake damage, for a given magnitude earthquake, to human structures depends on how well the buildings are built and what the structures are located on. Buildings on soft or filled-in soil suffer the most because they feel shock waves most strongly. Buildings on bedrock suffer less damage because the ground is firmer. Sometimes the ensuing fires, floods or caused by the earthquake are often where the greatest damage occurs.

One of the papers I chose is titled ‘Comparison of Short-Term and Time-Independent Earthquake Forecast Models for Southern California’ by Agnes Helmstetter, Yan Kagan, and David Jackson. They discuss how they initially developed a time-independent forecast for the southern California area. They can reasonably predict magnitude 5 or greater quakes by studying small magnitude 2 or less earthquakes. Many large earthquakes are preceded by and probably triggered by smaller ones. They use these models to issue daily earthquake forecasts for southern California.

The San Francisco 1906 earthquake was caused by a rupture on the San Andreas Fault, a continental that forms part of the tectonic boundary between the Pacific Plate and the North American Plate. The fault is characterized by mainly lateral motion where the western (Pacific) plate moves northward relative to the eastern (North American) plate. The 1906 rupture propagated both northward and southward from its epicenter for a total of about 300 miles (480 km). The San Andreas runs the length of California from the in the south to to the north, a distance of about 810 miles (1,300 km). The earthquake ruptured the northern third of the fault for a distance of about 300 miles (480 km). The maximum observed surface displacement was about 20 feet (6.1 m); however, measurements show displacements of up to 28 feet (8.5 m) in some places. The most recent analysis by the (USGS) shows that the most likely epicenter of the 1906 earthquake was very near on the coast of , an adjacent suburb just south of San Francisco.

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Studies on California earthquakes have been mainly written by seismologists who study the causes of quakes, the fault lines, the measurement of intensity and magnitude, and other scientific topics. This book differs from such studies in that it focuses on the experiences of people who have survived earthquakes and tell their stories in the book. The book also includes accounts written by eyewitnesses such as John Muir and Jack London, but most of the stories come from ordinary people who found themselves in extraordinary circumstances. The final chapter in the book offers suggestions on how to prepare for the inevitable major earthquake that is when, not if, it will come.

Earthquakes - Essay - 87,000+ Free Term Papers and Essays

...Director of Earthquake Preparedness, Los Angeles FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE 05th September 2012 Earthquake Preparedness Los Angeles, California – Earthquakes usually occur without any warning given to public and has the capability of enormous destruction which could lead to severe loss of lives and huge destructions. Natural disasters like earthquakes-preparing ahead of time can help us to save lives, protect our property and increase the pace of recovery. There are few simple steps that should be followed for preparing for such natural calamities like earthquakes. Southern California has a very high seismic activity. The San Andreas Fault is the largest and very famous fault in California. Because of a number of such faults, California is highly prone to earthquakes. In the past 100 years, there have been 4 major earthquakes in Los Angeles: Long Beach in 1933, San Fernando in 1971, Whittier Narrows in 1987 and the Northridge Quake in 1994. One of the most well-known earthquakes of California is the earthquake of San Fransisco in 1906. The magnitude of 7.8 collapsed the buildings in this region. Only after this quake, earthquake measuring instruments were developed and scientific techniques were created. The long beach earthquake very narrowly avoided a major disaster because of the timing. It could have led to severe life losses if it happened sometime before the actual one. In this area of Los Angeles, small tremors are always felt. The greatest Southern California...

San Francisco Earthquake - Research Paper by …

...Introduction Every Californian resident knows what the phrase “The Big One” means: a tremendous earthquake that scientists predict will rock the state of California, which sits on the famous San Andreas Fault line, an 800-mile line of weakness that runs through California. Overland, it runs for 625 miles, running north-south from Point Arena in north San Francisco to the border with Mexico. The most risky stretch of this fault, the southern part, passes about 35 miles from Los Angeles. Being the biggest and most populated city closest to the fault, Los Angeles is a high-risky region in the event of a big earthquake. There are over four million residents and 400, 000 businesses within Los Angeles city, an area of 475 square miles. It is one of the City’s greatest responsibilities to protect the public and ensure that all responsible agencies are prepared for immediate response and rescue operations in the event of earthquakes and other related disasters. The starting point, the focus of this press release, is educating the public about the causes of earthquakes, associated disasters, and vulnerability of Los Angeles to future earthquake events. Hazards Associated Earthquakes in Los Angeles The common disasters associated with earthquakes include the disruption of public, social and business activities, as well as destruction of property, and in serious cases, loss of life. In addition, earthquakes destroy infrastructure such as electricity lines, roads, water, and...

Essays on earthquakes Erik Welch March 13, 2016 I had highest economic losses from the new landmass in california's editorial reviews. Free essays online.

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