However, researchers still need to focus, not only on children’s experiences when they are in non-parental care facilities, but also on other aspects of the broader ecology, including the intersection between parental and non-parental care. For example, children in child care have different experiences at home than do children who only experience parental care.9,10 Thus, researchers need to determine whether differences between children at home and children who also attend child care settings are attributable to their experiences in care or to their different experiences at home (or both!). Researchers must also seek to improve the clarity of their findings by conducting meta-analyses that summarize the results of multiple smaller studies.11
Researchers have explored the effects of child care on many aspects of development, although research on cognitive and language development (especially in the context of compensatory educational programs) as well as social-emotional development and stress reactivity have been especially informative. Scholars and politicians who question the value and appropriateness of child care have been particularly concerned that children cannot maintain supportive relationships with their parents when they attend child care centers. They have also argued that experiences of non-parental care create stresses that adversely affect children’s behavioural adjustment.12,13 By contrast, those who do value child care have emphasized that children need to develop good relationships with care providers and peers in order to benefit fully from their enriching experiences in child care. They also acknowledge that stimulating care at home is influential and that it complements the effects of formal educational strategies and programs.
When students of early development began to explore the impact of non-parental care they first asked whether care by others than mothers was harmful or harmless. According to many theorists, child care may be problematic for toddlers and preschoolers. Attachment theory, for example, links successful early socio-emotional development to the development of trusting relationships (attachments) with a few reference figures, such as parents. The theory further proposed that continuous care, unbroken by separation, was essential to the development and maintenance of those primary attachments, which would also influence children’s emotional regulation and social behaviours, both contemporaneously and later in life.2,3 Because non-parental child care necessarily involves separations from primary attachment figures, attachment theorists were concerned that it might damage primary attachments and thus have adverse effects on socio-emotional development. They also argued that unrelated care providers are, on average, not as committed to their child care responsibilities as parents would be. Sociobiologists further argued that quality of care is a function of the degree of relatedness between care providers and children,4,5 so that the poorest quality of care should be expected from unrelated care providers, including paid teachers, babysitters, and nannies. A much more positive view of child care was advanced by developmental theorists who stressed the value of well-designed stimulation and instruction on the mental and communicative development of children.6
Whether or not children in child care develop and maintain good relationships with their parents depends upon parents’ ability to provide sensitive care at home.14 Furthermore, it is important that parents establish a balance between home and child care settings, and that they themselves continue to provide types of intimate interaction seldom available in child care centers.15,16 Long hours in child care and stressful parent-child relationships are associated with angry aggression in preschool children,17,18 whereas good relationships with care providers help minimize behaviour problems and aggression.19 The transition from home to child care is stressful for many children, so care providers need to help children manage their responses to this stress.20
Child care - Encyclopedia on Early Childhood Development
Do children in child care develop differently from those without child care experiences? Many scholars were initially worried that non-parental child care might be risky for children and thus sought to determine whether children in child care were as well adapted psychologically and behaviourally as children cared for exclusively at home. Later researchers began to explore the advantages of good-quality care and its potential benefits for children. In particular, they noted that child care offers opportunities for more extensive social contacts with peers and adults, and thus may open extended social worlds for children. Positive child care experiences may also enhance later educational opportunities, such that those experiencing early non-parental care are better able to benefit from education, adjust to routines, and resist conflicts. Nevertheless, home remains the emotional centre of children’s lives and it is important that supportive parent–child relationships not be harmed by child care experiences even when children spend considerable amounts of time in care.15
The Bioethics Project 2012 - The Medically Modified Human
While all of these developments were taking place in the id and ego, thesuperego wasplaying its role and impacting on the other components of the psychicsystem. Anyindividual who is made to develop in a family system as abusive andcontrolling asBrian Wilson would have difficulty forming a superego that would be toolenient, and heis no exception. Because the voice of the superego can be described as theinternalized parental voice, the best way that we might describe Brian'ssuperego is asa "harsh" one - a very punishing, guilt-inducing, aggressivesuperego formed by theharsh treatment by his father. Having as a model a father who cares littlefor thethoughts and feelings of his wife or children, Brian developed an ego idealthat tooklittle account of other people, including his band mates and family. He wantedartistic success and expression for himself, not necessarily for the BeachBoys, andthis is reflected in the way that he took personal responsibility for thewriting andproducing chores for the band. As a family man, Brian did not have thetime for hiswife and daughters because initially his music took priority, only to bereplaced byhis drug addictions and psychosis, again not entirely unexpectedconsidering the rolemodel that he had.
Because children can profit from experiences in non-parental child care, child care needs to be of good quality and should provide access to a variety of positive social relationships.25 To ensure that care environments are developmentally appropriate, however, adult–child ratios in child care must be kept low. Group size and composition also need to be considered as mediators of the quality of individual care provider–child relationships.26,27 It is also important that regulations and informed parents ensure and demand the highest possible quality of care. Because caring for others’ children (in groups) requires different care strategies than caring for ones’ own children, care providers need to be valued by society, well compensated, and enriched by serious and careful education and/or training.
What Is Prenatal Care? | Health Care During Pregnancy
The claim that parents have obligations, as parents, is less controversial. Nevertheless, there is disagreement about the basis of such obligations. Apart from biological, best interests, and social contract views, there is also the causal view of parental obligations, which includes the claim that those who bring a child into existence are thereby obligated to care for that child. Philosophers are concerned not merely with these theoretical questions related to parental rights and obligations; they also focus their attention on practical questions in this realm of human life. There are many distinct positions to consider with respect to medical decision making, the of children, child discipline, the licensing of parents, and the propriety of different forms of moral, political, and religious upbringing of children. While both the theoretical and practical aspects of the rights and obligations of parents are receiving increased attention, there remains much room for substantial work to be done on this important topic.